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Full text of "Co. J, 4th South Carolina infantry at the first battle of Manassas"

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at tki Sixst battle 
of THianassas 




Company J, 4th South Carolina Infantry 



Go. J, 4th South Carohna Infantry 

^^^=— -- AT THE -===== 

Fir^ Battle of Manassas 



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BY B. B. BREAZEALE 



MANASSAS JOURNAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

MANASSAS, VIRGINIA 

1912 







B. B. BREAZEALE 
4th Sergeant Co. J, 4th S. C. Infantry 



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Co. J, 4th South Carohna Infantry at the 
Fir^ Battle of Manassas 

A Letter Written by B. B. Breazeale to His Son at Manassas 



Belton, S. C, June 1, 1912. 
My Dear Son : 

I am afraid that I shall not be able to come to Manassas 
this summer. I would like to go over the old battle ground 
again, but fifty-one years is a long time, and I am not quite 
as active as I was in 1861. We were all boys then— I was 
only 24. 

My regiment was one of the first Southern regiments to 
reach Northern Virginia. I was, as you know, 4th sergeant 
of Company J, Capt. William Anderson, of the 4th South 
Carolina Infantry, Col. J. B. E. Sloan. We left Columbia, 
South Carolina, June 15, 1861, and when we reached Vir- 
ginia it was our good fortune to go into camp at the "fair 
and beauteous Leesburg. " Company J was detailed to 
guard Edward's Ferry on the Potomac, some three miles 
east of Leesburg. We remained there, living on the fat of 
the land and basking in the smiles of the good women, until 
early in July. 

All kinds of rumors had been rife in camp. Patterson 
had come down into the Shenandoah Valley with 15,000 Union 
troops. Jackson, who was only a Brigadier at the time, to- 
gether with Bee, Bartow and Elzey, had been sent to Win- 
chester to keep watch on his movements. McDowell had 
left Washington, had taken up position around Alexandria 



and was preparing to move upon Richmond by way of Fair- 
fax Courthouse. We knew of these movements and all of 
us were anxious to meet them. How little did we know of 
war! 

We broke camp about July 7th and moved down the 
turnpike in the direction of Centreville. As McDowell did 
not seem to be very act- 
ive, we took our time, 
often going into camp and 
resting two or three days. 
We were joined at Frying 
Pan by Major Wheat with 
his battalion of Louisiana 
Tigers. Wheat's bat- 
talion and the 4th South 
Carolina, less than 1500 
men alto:i:ether, were 
formed as a brigade and 
Gen. N. G. Evans took 
command. We arrived 
at the Stone Bridge on 
Wednesday evening, July 
17th, and went into camp 
in a little grove on the 
left hand side of the War- 
renton turnpike, just 
across Bull Run from Cen- 
treville. My company was 

on the extreme left, and so when the Tigers were brought 
up and attached to our regiment it threw us next to them. 
I got enough of them in short order. They were not afraid 
of God or man, and no one but Robert Wheat could manage 
them. I have often seen him tie them hand and foot, gag 
them and pour water down their throats to make them stop 
fighting among themselves. This was possibly the original 
water cure, but even this did not always work. A day or 
two after we got into camp two of his captains, both named 




STONEWALL" JACKSON 



White, fought a duel with their rifles, but neither was killed. 
In the maantime McDowell had brought his army down in 
the neighborhood of Cen- 
tre ville, and Beai^'egard 
had massed his troops at 
Mitchell's and Black- 
burn's fords and at Union 
Mills, further down Bull 
Run in the direction of 
Manassas. We after- 
wards learned that Beau- 
regard had planned to 
cross Bull Run at one of 
these fords below us and 
strike McDowell's left at 
Centre ville, whileMcDow- 
ell had planned to cross 
Bull Run atSudley's ford, 
three miles above the 
Stone Bridge, and strike 
Beauregard's left. Of 
course we did not know 

of McDowell's plans, and as Gen. Evans had orders to "hold 
the Stone Bridge at all hazards," we set to work early in 
the morning of the 18th to make our position secure. We 
cut every tree that was near enough to the road to fall across 
it, from the Stone Bridge to the hill near the Van Pelt house. 
You spoke of some large trees standing near the road about 
half way from the Stone Bridge to the Van Pelt hill. These 
must have been only little saplings fifty-one years ago, and 
too small to be of any consequence in stopping up the road. 
We cut off and sharpened the limbs of these felled trees and 
made it practically impossible for anything but infantry to 
get through. 

In the afternoon we went back to camp, and while I 
was lying down upon the leaves I heard the boom of a can- 
non in the direction of Mitchell's ford. McDowell was 




GEN. IRWIN Mcdowell 



making a feint upon our right in order to conceal his move- 
ments around our left flank, Bonham and Longstreet were 
at Blackburn's ford, and Early, Ewell and Jones were further 
down the run. Cocke's brigade was stationed at Lewis 
ford, about a mile below us, Jackson, Bee, Bartow and El- 
zey had been ordered from the valley, but as yet had not 
arrived. I began counting the cannon shots, "Boom, boom, 
boom, boom;" thev came slowly at first, and I had no diffi- 
culty in counting them. The shots came faster and faster, 
and when they reached a hundred I lost count. I afterwards 
learned that this was Tyler's division trying to drive Long- 
street from Mitchell's ford. 

We were, as you see, the first troops upon the battle 
field of Manassas. On the 19th Jackson, Bee and Bartow 

arrived from the Val- 
ley and took up their 
position at Blackburn's 
ford with Bonham and 
Longstreet. I well re- 
member that Friday 
night. Lieut. Brown 
and I went up to the 
Robinson house and 
spent the night there. 
This was one of the 
two nights that I spent 
in a dwelling house 
during the four years 
of service. We had 
some mutton for break- 
fast, and it was about 
half spoiled. It would 
kill me now, but a sol- 

GEN. G. T. BEAUREGARD ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ anything. 

On Saturday morn- 
ing Beauregard came to the conclusion that McDowell was 
massing his troops down at Blackburn's ford, and confidently 




expected an attack from that quarter. Our brigade fell in, 
leaving the Stone Bridge unprotected, and marched toward 










MAP 

ofth/ rounlri^ oc^upud 
rtDlRAL AND CONFIDERATE ARMIES 

on lhel8*»2^'July^86l 



I WA/iD£fl iCATieTT. 

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Manassas. We took up a position on the hill back of Mitch- 
ell's Ford, I suppose as a reserve to Longstreet. Nothing 



8 



came of this, so in the afternoon we marched back to the 

Stone Bridge and went into camp. 

We all slept well that night, as none of us expected an 

attack. About four 
o'clock Sunday morn- 
ing, I was awakened 
by the rumbling of can- 
non wheels on the turn- 
pike in the direction of 
Centreville. It was 
McDowell's army in 
motion. In a few min- 
utes our camp was up 
and in arms. We fell 
in and Captain Ander- 
son divided Co. J into 
squads. He ordered 
me, with Silas Eree- 
zeale. Press Cowan, E. 
M. Griffin and Pink 
Haynie to guard a lit- 
tle ford about 200 yards 
below the Stone Bridge. 
He himself carried the 
rest of the company up 
to the bridge, but they 
did not cross the run. 
I, with my squad. 




GENERAL BEE 



crossed the run on a foot log and took a position on the 
Centreville side. This was before day. 

Just about daylight I nociced two of the enemy's vedettes 
coming over the hill through the broomsedge. They were 
carrying their guns at trail arms, and, although coning in 
our direction, they did not see us, for they had their atten- 
tion on the men at the Stone Bridge. Press Cowan and I 
left the other three men by the foot log and walked up to 
the fence by the edge of the field, about 40 feet from the 



bank of Bull Run. The vedettes came on until they were 
within a hundred yards of us. I laid my gun down across 
the top rail and ran my eye down the barrel. At that in- 
stant Press Cowan, who was standing a step behind me, 
fired. This was the first musket fired at the Battle of Ma- 
nassas. It was fired by Press Cowan, a private of Co. J, 
of the 4th South Carolina Infantry. It was about £00 yards 
below the Stone Bridge and about 40 feet from the bank of 
Bull Run, on the Centreville side, about 6 o'clock in the 
morning. 

I did not fire, but set my gun down and jumped upon 
the fence to see what had happened to the two vedettes. 
At the crack of the gun 
both went down in the 
broomsedge. I had no 
more than reached the 
top of the fence when 
"zip" a bullet went by 
my head. This was the 
first intimation I had that 
a Yankee would shoot you 
if he had a chance, and I 
lost no time in getting 
down from the fence and 
getting under cover. I 
do not know whether 
Press hit his man or not. 
Only one shot was fired 
at me, and we never saw 
anything more of the two 
vedettes. 

McDowell had crossed Cub Run and was movingnorth ward 
in the direction of Sudley 's ford, but Beauregard still expected 
an attack at Blackburn's ford. About 8 o'clock, Major 
Alexander, chief of the Confederate signal service, who 
was stationed on a high hill two miles east of Manassas, 
seven miles from the Stone Bridge, saw clouds of dust in 




COLONEL BARTOW 



10 



the direction of Centreville, and caught the glimmer of the 
morning sun on McDowell's caissons. He made out through 
his field glasses that the enemy was in motion, and sent this 
message by signal flags to General Evans, who was at the 
Van Pelt house. "Lookout for your left. You are being 
turned. ' ' This was the first message ever sent by signal flags 
in actual warfare. 

About this time the enemy brought up four pieces of 
artillery on the hill I etween Bull Run and Cub Run aid 
commenced to shell our position. Company B was stationed 
on the hill between Bull Run and Young's branch. The first 
shell struck among them and killed Wilton Earle. Later in 
the day, this same battery opened fire upon our hospital 
flag, which floated over the Henry House. I do not think 

they intended firing 
upon our wounded, but 
they were possibly raw 
troops like ourselves, 
and did not know a 
hospital fljig when t hey 
saw one. 

Beauregard had 
now awakened to the 
fact that McDowell was 
swinging around h i s 
left flank, so he began 
moving his troops in 
our direction. The 
Loudoun battery, Cap- 
tain Rodgers, took up 
position on the Van Pelt 
hill and began to re- 
turn the fire of the 
enemy's battery on the 
other side of the run. We were between the fires, but ex- 
cept tearing off the tree tops over our heads no damage was 
done. 




GEN. JAMES B. RICKETTS 



11 



About 11 o'clock Burnside, with two Rhode Island regi- 
ments, crossed Sudley's ford and appeared upon the top of 
Mathew's hill. Gen. 
Evans took the Louisi- 
ana Tigers and six 
companies of the 4th 
regiment and moved at 
a double quick across 
the ravine and up the 
hill to meet them. Ev- 
ans had less than a 
thousand men with him 
at this time. My com- 
pany still held its posi- 
tion on the run, while 
three other companies 
were left on the pike 
and below the Van 
Pelt house and Robin- 
son hill. 

The Tigers outran 
the South Carolina boys 
and reached the top of 
the hill first. We could 

hear the musketry rattling and the men cheering when they 
got to the top of the hill. Evans, single-handed, was hold- 
ing in check the Federal advance. We did not know what 
was happening over there beyond our sight. The musketry 
got louder and the artillery began taking a hand. Presently 
cannon began firing from the Henry House hill. This was 
Imboden, with his Staunton battery, w^ho was attached to 
Bee's Brigade. 

We stuck to our post until about 1 o'clock. A Federal 
brigade of three regiments (Schenck's) came up the turn- 
pike from the direction of Centreville. We could hear their 
bands playing "The Star Spangled Banner" and "Yankee 
Doodle," and we began to get a little uneasy. Another bri- 




GEN. CHAS. GRIFFIN 



12 



gade (Sherman's) had already crossed the run a little way 
above us and was coming- into action from the direction of 
the Pittsylvania house. We were rav^ troops, and dreaded 
being captured u'orse than anything else. The br'gade in 
front halted in the woods about 400 yards above the bridge, 
and took off their knapsacks and prepared for action. We 
knew that we could not hold the bridge against them, and 
as they approached us Captain Anderson withdrew his men 
from the bridge and brought them down the run toward 
where my squad was stationed. He called to us that we 
were being cut off; so we ran across the run and joined 
them, and together we ran up the hill into the woods toward 
the Lewis house. We were completely cut off from our 
regiment and knew not which way to turn. 

The firing had now shifted to the Henry Hill, so Cap- 
tain Anderson headed us in that direction. We came out of 

the woods just above 
the Lewis house and 
ran into hundreds of 
stragglers, wounded 
men and soldiers that 
had been beaten back 
in the fight on Math- 
ews' hill. Bee and 
Bartow had now come 
up and were fighting 
furiously below the 
Henry house. Jackson 
had gotten there also, 
but had not yet gone 
into the fight. 

We had no more 
than gotten out of the 
woods when a young 
officer rode up shout- 
ing: "Rally, men, rally. Fall in and stand by your colors." 
We marched out in the open and joined an Alabama and a 




GEN. JOS. E. JOHNSTON 



13 

Mississippi company. A little Irishman took command of 
these three companies and marched us up and formed us in 
line of battle and stationed us on the extreme left of our 



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JEFFERSON DAVIS 

line that was already there supporting our artillery, our 
artillery being- on the extreme right of this line. A portion 
of our company was in the head of a gulley just over the 
ridge on the Henry hill, directly between the Henry house 
and Manassas. 

All this time the minnies were singing above our heads 
and shells were exploding above us. Rodger's battery had 



14 

bean broug:ht up from the Van Pelt house, one gun break- 
ing down on the way. These, with Imboden's battery (the 
Staunton Artillery), the Rockbiidge Artillery, the Alexan- 
dria Artillery and two smooth-bore New Orleans guns, 
making 17 cannon in all, were stationed in the edge of the 
woods, near the road leading from the Lewis house to the 
Warrenton turnpike, almost on a line with the crest of the 
Henry house hill. 

We had been in line of battle only a few minutes when 
General Beauregard rode along our front in the direction of 
the Lewis house. This was the first time that I had ever 
seen him. A staff officer with him shouted: "Men, this is 
General Beauregard." "Yes," said he, taking off his hat, 
"and fight for General Beauregard. When they put their 
heads over that hill they are ours." He rode on out of sight 
down the line. We could hear the men cheering him as he 
went. 

Rickett's battery of six pieces had been moved by Mc- 
Dowell from the Mathews hill and had taken a position in 
our front, about fifty yards from the Henry House. Some 
of our sharpshooters were in the house at this time and they 
opened fire upon him and killed several of his horses. He 
turned his guns upon the house and riddled it with shells. 
This was the volley that killed the Widow Henry. She was 
85 years old at the time and was confined to her bed. After 
Ricketts had dislodged the sharpshooters he turned his at- 
tention to our batteries stationed in the edge of the woods, 
not over three hundred yards away, on our extreme right. 

About this time another Federal battery of five pieces 
under Captain Griffin came up the hill and unlimbered be- 
tween Ricketts and the Henry House. Griffin's position was 
now on the left of Ricketts. Both these batteries were 
shelling our artillery while we were taking our position, 
over the crest of the Henry hill. 

All this was almost within a hundred yards of us, but 
over the hill and out of our sight. 

After they had been firing for about half an hour. Cap- 



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tain Griffin decided to move two of his pieces to the eleva- 
tion on the right of Ricketts, in order to give himself more 




CONFEDERATE MONUMENT AT MANASSAS 



room. They limbered up and came charging up the hill 
directly in our front. They did not see us, for their atten- 



16 

tion was directed toward the artillery on our right. When 
they got within 22 steps of our line and brought their horses 
half way around preparing to unlimber, Captain Anderson 
shouted ' 'Fire ! ' ' We rose up from the gulley and gave them a 
volley. Sam Emerson and I ran through the smoke to 
within 16 steps of them to see what had happened. Every 
horse had been killed and only one man was in sight. He 
was crouching behind a wheel of one of the caissons. I 
fired at him, but in the excitement of the battle I do not 
know whether I hit him or not. This was the first repulse 
the enemy had met with that day. 

Captain Griffin afterwards testified before a committee 
investigating the conduct of the war, that he had moved 
these two pieces up there and that they had been in position 
about five minutes and had been firing when they were shot 
down. In this he was mistaken. They did not even get 
unlimbered. Captain Griffin remained down the hill with 
the rest of his battery, and no mounted officer accompanied 
the two guns to the top of the hill. One of the caissons ex- 
ploded a few minutes afterwards and shell flew through the 
air in every direction. The wheel horses were partly 
burned. 

We got down into the gulley again and waited for the 
Federal advance. None of us knew where our regitXient 
was nor who our present commander was. We only knew 
that the enemy was in front and that a terrible conflict was 
taking place in the ravine below us. 

About this time Company B of the 4th South Carolina— 
the Palmetto Riflemen— came marching along the top of the 
hill, between us and the Henry House. The color-bearer 
stopped a moment and planted our flag upon the two pieces 
of artillery that we had just disabled. Then they marched 
on in the direction of the Lewis house. They were also cut 
off, and were looking for their command. Amid the smoke 
and confusion no one recognized them until they had passed. 

By this time Hampton had gotten into action. He had 
unloaded his Legion— 600 strong— at Manassas that morning 



17 

and had come to Evans' support. He took up a position near 
the Robinson house, with, his right over near the Warrenton 
turnpike. 




THE JIM ROBINSON HOUSE 



The brigades of Bartow, Bee and Evans had been pretty 
well cut to pieces in the ravine below the Henry House and 
were now coming up the Henry Hill in a disorganized mass. 
At this time we were badly whipped, but Jackson, who had 
been stationed in the woods behind the artillery, had come 
into action. He had formed a line of battle along the crest 
of the Henry Hill in the face of the enemy's artillery fire. 
The South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and 
Louisana troops were in a panic. It was then that General 
Bee rode in front of th m and shouted: "Look, there stands 
Jackson like a stone wall. Rally behind the Virginians." 
He presented a magnificent spectacle, with his long hair and 
brilliant sash, on his magnificent roan. He was shot immedi- 
ately afterwards and fell from his horse. Four of his men 



18 

picked him up and brought him out toward the Lewis House. 
As they psssed me I fired cfT my gun which I remember 
was loaded with 12 buckshot and a ball, and put it under him 
as a support. The four other men and I then carried him 
back toward the Lewis House. Some others joined us on 
the way. He was suffering terribly from a wound in his 
groin. We laid him down and I took off his boots. We then 
turned him over to the surgeons. He died that night. I 
then went back to my company. 

The battle now seemed to center on the Confederate left, 
a few hundred yards from where my company was stationed. 
The batteries of Ricketts and Griffin, stationed in front of 
the Henry House, had confined their attention to our artil- 
lery, but, as I remember it, with very little effect as they 
had fired too high and had cut their fuses too long. About 
two o'clock, after the brigades of Bee, Bartow and Evans 
had rallied on the Henry Hill, General Beauregard ordered a 
charge against the batteries of Ricketts and Griffin and their 
supporting columns. Sherman's brigade had come up 
Young's Branch to where the Sudley road crosses the War- 
renton turnpike and had followed the Sudley road up oppo- 
site to and within 150 yards of the Henry House. The road 
along here was worn deep enough to furnish shelter to his 
troops from our fire. He had now left this shelter and his 
troops were swarming over the plateau in front of the Henry 
House, when Beauregard ordered the charge. When our 
man swept down upon them the enemy broke and fled, but 
three times they formed and came back. The enemy's bat- 
teries seemed to be the object of the charges. I believe that 
Ricketts' battery was taken and retaken three times but 
they were badly disabled and neither side had ammunition 
to work them. It was in front of these batteries that 
General Bartow was killed while leading the 7th Georgia. 
Some Mississippians also fell here. I saw 17 of them lying 
side by side in front of the Henry House after the battle. 
They were tall, handsome fellows with high boots on. They 
were the first dead men I saw during the war. 



19 



This movement of the enemy against our extreme left 
and the destruction of their artillery left our batteries free 
to increase their fire on the enemy's left and rear. They 
must have done good shooting from the number of dead 
men, horses, ambulances and muskets left on the field below 
the Henry House. 

McDowell now brought in Heintzelman's division and 
began executing his final flank movement against Jackson's 
left. Jackson was hard pressed and for a long time held 




THE FAMOUS STONE BRIDGE 

WHERE THE FIRST GUN WAS FIRED JULY 21, 1861 

back the enemy's advances. They then began moving 
towards the woods on his extreme left southwest of the 
Henry House, on the edge of the Sudley road. Jackson was 
changing his front to meet this movement when Kirby Smith 
arrived from the Valley with Elzey's brigade. He had 
unloaded his troops on the Manassas Gap Railroad about four 
miles from Manassas, and had come across the country at a 
double quick, guided by the sound of the cannon. He was 




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not a minute too soon. He struck the advancing columns of 
Heintzelman in the edge of the woods and they brol^e and 
fled. General Smith was wounded here and also Colonel 
Wilcox, one of McDDwell's brigade commanders. 

This was the beginning of the route. I went upon the 
crest of the hill where I could see the retreating enemy. 
Elzey followed up his attack with a charge, and the enemy 
fled down the ravine west of the Henry House, across the 
Warrenton turnpike and went over the hill in the direction 
from which they had come, toward Sudley Ford. Our 
infantry made little effort to pursue them. 

The brigade (Schenck's) that had driven us away from 
the Stone Bridge had not gotten into battle. They had 
crossed the bridge without opposition, worked their way 
through our obstructions, come up the Warrenton turnpike 
and had begun to deploy below the Robinson Hill when the 
retreat began. They also broke and fled. A few of our 
artillerymen wheeled one of our cannon around and fired 
two solid shots at this retreating brigade. The shots struck 
the ground over by the Van Pell House and did no damage. 
I wa-; standing a few yards from our guns and to my knowl- 
edge these were the only shots fired at the retreating enemy 
who were in plain view for a good many minutes. This 
brigade (Schenck's) was the only one to retreat by way of 
the Stone Bridge. They did not stop for their knapsacks 
which they had left on the other side of the run. The 4th 
South Carolina picked them up a few hours later and inci- 
dentally in them we made acquaintance with friends that 
stuck by us through the balance of the war— greybacks. 

After the retreating enemy had pretty well gotten out 
of sight, my company marched back down to the Lewis 
House. We reached there just in time to meet President 
Davis. He had come up from Richmond to Manassas and 
with his staff, had ridden across to the battle field in time 
to see the victory. He rode up to the house, spoke to General 
Johnston, took off his hat and cheered for the Confederacy. 
Colonel Radford, who had been stationed in the woods below 




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the Lewis House, now brought up his six companies of 
cavalry and these passed in review before President Davis. 
The cavalrymen, in great spirits, rode around the President, 
wrapped their flags about him and almost pulled him off his 
horse in their enthusiasm. The President all the while mak- 
ing a mock effort to protect himself. We were all shouting 
and cheering, and full of enthusiasm. I do not believe, dis- 
organized though we were, that twice our number could have 
driven us from the field then. 




THE STONE HOUSE 

USED AS A HOSPITAL BY BOTH ARMIES DURING BOTH BATTLES 

General Johnston now ordered the cavalry to cross Bull 
Run below the Stone Bridge, at Lewis' Ford, and to attack 
the enemy between Cub Run and Bull Run. They galloped 
off out of sight. We learned that night that they had 
charged a battery with great galantry and had taken Colonel 
Corcoran prisoner. 

The Confederate forces were now completely disorgan- 
ized and no attempt was made to keep the commands intact. 



24 

I left my company and went back up to the Henry House 
and went in. Some surgeons were there dressing Mrs. 
Henry's wounds. Two other ladies were in the room. One, 
her daughter, had remained with her mother throughout the 
terrible ordeal. During the bombardment of the house she 
had crept into the fireplace and put her head up the chim- 
ney. This saved her life but the concussion from the burst- 
ing shells made her deaf for the balance of her life. 

Late in the evening, about sundown, Kershaw's regi- 
ment, the 2nd South Carolina, was thrown across Bull Run 
after the retreating enemy. They went over as far as Cub 
Run, but came back and went into camp on the hill between 
Bull Run and Cub Run. This was the only effort made, to 
my knowledge, to follow up the victory with infantry. 

After sundown our commissary wagons brought from 
Manassas boxes of ham and shoulders which had been cooked 
there that morning, together with plenty of hard tack. We 
had been fighting all day and had not had a bite to eat since 
the evening before. Oh, how good that ham was! I can 
taste it yet. 

We then got together what was left of our regiment and 
went back to camp. Some of our men, in coming down 
Young's Branch, came upon a spring just below the Robin- 
son House. Here they found our adjutant, Sam Wilkes, 
with his horse and his little pet dog, Jeff, all lying dead. 
He had evidently ridden down there during the battle to get 
a drink of water and had been shot. His little dog had fol- 
lowed him throughout the eventful day and was faithful 
unto death. 

Early in the morning, Lieutenant Brown and I went 
over to Cub Run. Here was the most remarkable sight that 
I saw during the war. The road was blocked for over half a 
mile. Artillery, ambulances, forge wagons, caissons were 
jammed together in hopeless confusion. Muskets, swords, 
flags, canteens, knapsacks and hospital stores were scattered 
everywhere. I saw a lady's hoopskirt hanging on Long 
Tom, the old cannon that was used by the Confederates dur- 



25 

ing the balance of the war. I went on up across Cub Run 
to see what had caused the jam. It was a four-horse wagon 
filled with barrels which evidently had contained salt pork. 
The singletrees, etc., were still there and I could readily see 
what had happened. The horses had become unmanageable 
for some reason and had turned to the right and run back- 
wards. This cut the wagon squarely across the road with 
its front end up Cub Run. This was on the little hill about 
30 yards across Cub Run toward Centreville. 

About the time this jam took place, it seems that a rumor 
was started among the retreating enemy that Johnston had 
arrived with 30,000 fresh troops. They had been fighting 
Johnston all day but did not know it. Fear now took pos- 
session of them. They threw away their muskets, dropped 
their colors, cut their horses loose and fled. The grass on 
either side of the road was trampled down and the fences 
were toppled over. It must have been an awful panic from 
appearances the next morning. Some of them did not stop 
running until they had crossed the Potomac. 

Your uncle, Jim McFall was captured and taken into 
Washington with this rout. He wa" only 17 years old at the 
time. 

We stayed in camp on Bull Run for about three days 
until tho stench from the battle field got so bad that we 
could not stand it. We then moved over to Centreville 
where we stayed until the spring of 1862. 

This is my experience in the first battle of Manassas, 
and I saw it only as an observing man would see it. One 
man can see very little of a battle, so I may be mistaken in 
some of the details. I hope that none of us will ever see 
another. B. B. BREAZEALE. 



ARMY ORGANIZATION 

AS COMPILED BY PROF. H. F. HENRY AND USED BY HIS PERMISSION. 



ORGANIZATION OF THAT PART OF GEN. MCDOWELL'S ARMY 
WHICH TOOK PART IN THE FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN. 



First Division— Gen. Dan'l Tyler— 

1st Brigade, Col. E. D. Keyes: 1st Conn. Rgt., Lt. Col. Speidal. 
2nd Conn. Rgt., Col. Terry. 3rd Conn. Rgt., Col. Chatfield. 2nd Maine 
Rgt., Col. Jameson. 

2nd Brigade, Gen. Robt. Schenck: 1st Ohio Rgt, Col. McCook. 
2nd Ohio Rgt., Lt. Col. Mason. 2nd N. Y. Rgt., Col. Tompkins. Car- 
lisle's Battery, six brass guns; 1 30-pounder, Lt. Haines. 

3rd Brigade, Col. W. T. Sherman: 13th N. Y. Rgt., Col. Quimby. 
69th N. Y. Rgt., Col. Corcoran. 79th N. Y. Rgt., Col. Cameron. 
2nd Wis. Rgt., Lt. Col. Peck. Ayres' Battery, six guns. 

4th Brigade, Col. Richardson: Before Blackburn's Ford. 



Second Division— Col. D. Hunter— 

1st Brigade, Col. Andrew Porter: 27th N. Y. Rgt., Col. Slocum. 
14th N. Y. Rgt, Col. Wood. 8th N. Y. Rgt., Col. Lyons. Battalion of 
Regulars, Maj. Sykes. Battalion of Marines, Maj. Reynolds. Griffin's 
Battery, six guns. 

2nd Brigade, Col. A. E. Burnside: 1st R. I. Rgt., Maj. Balch. 
2nd R. I. Rgt, Col. Slocum. 71st N. Y. Rgt, Col. Martin, 2nd N. H. 
Rgt., Col. Marston. 2nd R. I. Battery, six guns. 2 boat howitzers 
with 71st N. Y, Rgt 



Third Division— Col, S, P, Heintzelman— 

1st Brigade, Col. W. B. Franklin: 1st Minn. Rgt., Col. Gorman. 

5th Mass. Rgt, . 11th Mass. Rgt, . Ricketts' Battery, 

six guns. 

2nd Brigade, Col. 0. B. Wilcox: 1st Mich. Rgt., . 11th N. Y. 

Rgt, (Fire Zouaves) Col. Farnham. 38th N. Y. Rgt, Col. Ward. 
Arnold's Battery, four guns. 

Third Brigade, Col. 0, 0. Howard: 4th Maine Rgt., Col. Berry, 
5th Maine Rgt., Col. Dunnell. 2nd Vermont Rgt, Col. Whiting. 



27 

ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY UNDER GEN. BEAUREGARD AT 

THE FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN, WITH POSITION 

BEFORE COMMENCEMENT OF BATTLE. 



Ewell's Brigade (before Union Mills Ford): 5th Ala. Rgt., Col. 
Rodes. 6th Ala. Rgt., Col. Siebel. 6th La. Rgt., Col. Seymour. Four 
12-pounder howitzers of Walton's Battery. Harrison's, Green's and 
Cabell's Companies of Virginia Cavalry. 

D. R. Jones' Brigade (before McLean's Ford): 5th So. Car. Rgt., 
Col. Jenkins. 17th Miss. Rgt., Col. Burt. 18th Miss. Rgt.. Col. Fether- 
stone. Two guns from Walton's Battery. One Company of Cavalry. 

LongstReet's Brigade (before Blackburn's Ford): 1st Va Rgt., 
Col. Moore. 11th Va. Rgt.. Col. Garland. 17th Va. Rgt., Col. Corse. 
24th Va. Rgt.. Lt. Col. Hairston. 5th N. C. Rgt., Col. Jones. Two 
guns from Walton's Battery. Whitehead's Company Virginia Cavalry. 

Bonham's Brigade (before Mitchell's Ford): 2nd So. Car. Rgt, 
Col. Kershaw. 3rd So. Car. Rgt., Lt. Col. Williams. 7th So. Car. Rgt., 
Col. Bacon. 8th S. C. Rgt., Col. Cash. Shield's and Del. Kemper's Bat- 
teries— probably eight guns. Flood's, Radford's, Payne's, Ball's, Wick- 
ham's and Powell's Companies of Virginia Cavalry, commanded by Col. 
Radford. 

Cocke's Brigade (before the fords between Mitchell's and the 
Stone Bridge) : 8th Va. Rgt., Col. Hunton. 18th Va. Rgt., Col. Withers. 
19th Va. Rgt., Lt. Col. Strange. 28th Va. Rgt., Col. R. T. Preston. 
49th Va. Rgt., Col. Wm. Smith. Latham's Battery, four guns. One 
Company Virginia Cavalry. 

Evans' Demi-Brigade (before Stone Bridge and reporting to Gen. 
Cocke): 4th So. Car. Rgt., Col. Sloane. Battalion La. Tigers, Maj. 
Wheat. Four 6-pounder guns. Two Companies Virginia Cavalry. 

Early's Brigade (in reserve in rear of Mitchell's, Blackburn's and 
McLean's Fords) : 7th Va. Rgt., Col. Kemper. 7th La. Rgt, Col. Hays. 
13th Miss. Rgt., Col. Barksdale. Three guns of Walton's Battery. 

Holmes' Brigade (was called from Aquia Creek to join Gen. Beau- 
regard) : 2ndTenn. Rgt, . 1st Ark. Rgt., . 

Hampton's Legion, 600 strong, came up from Richmond shortly be- 
fore the battle to join Beauregard's army. 



28 

ORGANIZATION OF GEN. JOHNSTON'S ARMY, UNITED WITH 
THAT OF GEN. BEAUREGARD AT MANASSAS. 



Jackson's Brigade: 2nd Va. Rgt., Col. Allen. 4th Va. Rgt., Coi. 
Jas. F. Preston. 5th Va. Rgt., Col. Harper. 27th Va. Rgt., Lt. Col. 
Echols. 33rd Va. Rgt., Col. Cummings. 

Bee's Brigade: 4th Ala. Rgt., Col. Jones. 2nd Miss. Rgt., Col. 
Falkner. 11th Miss. Rgt., Lt. Col. Liddell (only two companies.) 

Bartow's Brigade: 7th Ga. Rgt, Col. Gartrell. 8th Ga. Rgt, 
Lt. Col. Gardner. Imboden's Battery, six guns. 

(Both Brigades commanded by Gen. Bee.) 

Elzey's Brigade: 10th Va. Rgt, Col. Gibbon. 1st Md. Rgt, Lt 
Col. Stuart. 3rd Tenn. Rgt., Col. Vaughan. 

Regiments not Brigaded: 8th La. Rgt., Col Kelley. 6th N. C. 
Rgt, Col. Fisher. 11th N. C. Rgt, Col. Kirkland. 13th Va. Rgt, Col. 
A. P. Hill. 






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